750 The first great English epic poem, Beowulf, is written in Old English. It is a Christian poem that exemplifies early medieval society in England and shows roots in Old Testament Law. The greatest surviving product of these monks is the Book of Kells, a Gospel book of decorative art. Boniface anoints Pepin a divinely sanctioned king, and the Frankish monarchy is fused into the papal order.The western European empire, based on the alliance between the Frankish monarchy and the Latin Church, provides the image of Western cultural unity for Europeans, though it does not last long.The territory of Asia Minor, together with Greece, becomes the seat of Byzantine civilization for several centuries.
Otto establishes a pattern of resistance to political fragmentation and a close alliance with the Church.
768 Pepin's son, Carolus Magnus (Charlemagne), succeeds his father and is one of the most important rulers of medieval history.
In time, his empire, known as the Carolingian dynasty, includes the greater section of central Europe, northern Italy and central Italy in addition to realms already conquered by Frankish rule.
His concepts of purgatory and penance widen the gulf between the Eastern and Western Churches. 600 The early Middle Ages begin in 600 and last until 1050.
610 Heraclius becomes Emperor in Constantinople as the Persian Empire is attempting the takeover of Byzantine civilization.
Pepin the Short succeeds his father, Charles Martel, and strengthens the alliance between Benedictine missionaries and Frankish expansion.